Mussolini wrote the music to Seal's Kiss from a Rose

Chairman Mao invented Sudoku

 A keen mathematician and fan of logic puzzles Mao designed the game in around 1963 as a way of mentally training his elite Red Guards.  The game was then adapted slightly by the Japanese publisher Nikoli in 1984 giving it the currently recognised name ‘Sudoku’ (a shortened form of the Japanese for “the digits must be single”)

Seal’s Kiss from a Rose was written by Mussolini and Stalin

Mussolini was a keen violinist in his early years and wrote many pieces for the instrument, but it was the melody from an untitled work from 1904 that the British singer Seal combined with Stalin’s 1916 Georgian poem Morning and used as a base for his 1994 hit Kiss from a Rose.  He had initially intended to publicise the use of the works as a unique selling point but Sire Records advised that their influence be played down for the release of the song.

Thatcher invented Mr Whippy ice cream

Before her political career Thatcher was part of a chemical research team that discovered a way to increase the amount of air in ice-cream, therefore reducing the costs for manufacturers, and Mr Whippy was born!

Sudoku - Invented by Chairman Mao

The film In the Line of Fire was written by Saddam Hussein

Ayyam al-tawila, al- (the long days) is a 1980 autobiographical film of Saddam Hussein’s attempted assassination of Abd al-Karim Qasimin the script of which Jeff Maguire used as the basis for the American film In the Line of Fire, changing the setting to the US and Hussein’s hero into Mitch Leary, the villain of the piece.

A giraffe's ½ metre tongue is long enough to clean its own ears.

Sharks are immune to almost all known diseases.

A sheep, a duck and a rooster were the first animals to fly in a hot air balloon.

A giraffe’s ½ metre tongue is long enough to clean its own ears.

The sea horse is the only animal where the male gives birth.

The word ‘Chihuahua’ means ‘tiny dog in the sky’.

Camels have 4 hearts, one per leg

The eel-shark is the only animal capable of turning itself inside out.

Rhino horns are made of hair.

Humans are the only animal that can walk backwards.

The spine-tailed swift (also known as the white-throated needletail) sometimes fly so fast that they split in half.

The only definitive way to tell the difference between a frog and a toad is by taste.

Millions of trees are accidentally planted by squirrels who bury nuts and then forget where they hid them.

Certain Chinese and American alligators survive the winter by freezing their heads in ice.

The giant octopus has such heavy legs that they fall off if it is lifted out of the water.

All butterflies are cross-eyed.

Montana mountain goats will butt heads so hard their hooves fall off.

Crabs outnumber humans 7 million to 1.

Honeybees have hair on their eyes.

Polar bears will not attack women.

Some ribbon worms will eat themselves if they can’t find any food.

All wolves are deaf.

The fingerprints of koala bears are virtually indistinguishable from those of humans, so much so that they could be confused at a crime scene.

Once a peacock bites you, it never lets go – even after it has died.

Leopards can’t see milk.

Fleas have killed more humans than all the wars ever fought.

Once a peacock bites you, it never lets go – even after it has died.

Most bees are allergic to honey.

If you lift a kangaroo’s tail off the ground it can’t hop.

Macaw eggs always hatch clockwise in the nest, starting from the south east.

Leeches have 32 brains.

Wasp stings are made of glass.

Male scorpions are born with wings that fall off once they have mated.

All elephants walk on tip-toe, because the back portion of their foot is made up of all fat and no bone.

Bird’s nests are 80% water.

Bats can’t walk.

Tadpoles are more intelligent than guinea pigs.

Birds couldn’t survive in space as they need gravity to swallow.

Dolphins are the only animal, other than humans, that have been observed showing racist behaviour.

A donkey will sink in quicksand but a mule won’t.

The North-African wildebeest is the only mammal that doesn’t need oxygen to survive.

Killer whales kill sharks by torpedoing up into the shark’s stomach from underneath, causing the shark to explode.

Most dogs are taller at night than in the day.

Bats always turn left when leaving a cave.

The word ‘alligator’ comes from the Pakistani for ‘delicious lady’.

When a giraffe’s baby is born it falls from a height of six feet, normally without being hurt.

According to experts, whale songs rhyme.

Penguins don’t believe in death.

Due to its ability to completely flatten its body, a Leptothorax minutissimus ant can never be crushed.

A cat has a higher chance of surviving a fall from a 20th story window than from a 7th story window.

Killer whales kill sharks by torpedoing up into the shark's stomach from underneath, causing the shark to explode.

A Parliament of Owls

An adultery of snails
An ambush of widows
An armada of ships
A banter of racists
A bed of oysters
A belittlement of prawn
A betrayal of pencils
A blessing of unicorns
A brouhaha of clams
A business of flies
A carnival of invalids
A cast of actors
A cete of badgers
A coven of witches
A culture of bacteria
A deceit of pandas
A disappointment of rainbows
A farce of giraffe
A flight of stairs
A flirtation of crabs
A gaggle of geese (walking)
A gam of whales
A harbinger of kittens
A host of angels
An idiocy of (mounted) horses
An inconvenience of scorpions
An intercourse of daffodils
A knot of frogs
A labour of moles
A library of babies
A malarkey of midwives
A matrimony of gorilla
A mincing of sharks
A murder of crows
A nemesis of dolphins (when out of water)
An observance of hermits
A pantheon of gods
A parliament of owls
A piteousness of doves
A pod of dolphins (when in water)
A pride of lions
A puff of weasels
A repression of beavers
A rigmarole of hens
A route of wolves
A sea of bishops
A secrecy of swans (when dead)
A sentencing of neighbours
A shower of lizards
A shrewdness of apes
A singular of boar (less than 12)
A skein of geese (flying)
A smack of nuns
A sounder of boar (12 or more)
A sprinkling of bear-cubs
An unkindness of ravens
A wedge of geese (flying in a V)
A welding of Americans

A Smack of Nuns


Zagworm (or Xagworm), although relatively unknown in the west, is becoming increasingly common in mainland Africa and is now the third leading cause of death in the Republic of Liberia after lung cancer and malaria.

Despite its name, Zagworm, like Ringworm, is actually a fungal parasite rather than an actual worm; the name comes from the track marks left by the fungus when breaking down tissue which resemble the pathways of burrowing worms.  These distinctive features, but the absence of worms themselves, coupled with the ‘possessed’ appearance of sufferers led the Motuans of Papua New Guinea to believe that the disease was caused by a demonic parasite; they therefore named it after the Motu word for Satan – ‘Xag’.

Transmission of the parasite is frighteningly easy and fairly unique.  Since the spores are so small, they can essentially hitch a ride on some larger strains of bacteria, making catching Zagworm as easy as catching the common cold, although far more dangerous without treatment.

Zagworm spores: Among the smallest fungal spores in the world

Once ingested the spores hatch into gametophytes and burrow into the body, generally settling on tendons or large areas of sinew, where they grow and break down the tissue.  This erosion of tendons and sinew causes the first noticeable symptom of a Zagworm infection: involuntary reflex reactions.  This rapid tensing and relaxing of the muscles (especially in the limbs) can cause involuntary jumping or, more commonly, falling over; at other times the affected person can be expected to lash out or upwards with the arms and can often result in the patient punching themselves repeatedly in the face.

The next stage of the illness usually sees the fungus spread to the brain, causing memory loss, paranoia and delusions; if treatment isn’t administered early at this stage then recovery is very unlikely.  In some rare cases, where tendons are completely broken down before the destruction of brain tissue has proved fatal, Zagworm can cause Detached Bone Syndrome (DBS), a particularly horrific condition that can see the body contort into painful and unnatural positions, such as joints bending backwards or bones sliding out of position.  The trauma of witnessing this condition in a person who is already highly mentally unstable has been the inspiration for many posession myths, including much of the content of the 1973 film ‘The Exorcist’.

Despite how common the parasite is, and the fact that it is almost always fatal if left undiagnosed, Zagworm can be easily and cheaply treated with voriconazole; it is therefore only prevalent in communities without easy access to medical treatment or areas of extreme poverty.

Théodore Joseph Albéric Marie Lefèvre was the 39th Prime Minister of Belgium and enjoyed a successful political career until his death in 1973.  His political know-how and influence is all the more impressive considering his remarkably unusual childhood.

Lefèvre was born in Ghent on 17th January 1914, his father, Guillaume Lefèvre, was a diplomat and had recently returned from the post of ambassador to Romania due to the uncertainty leading up to the start of the first world war.  After the war ended Guillaume took up a post in the then Belgian colony Senegal; where the academically gifted Théodore was taught privately by a team of tutors.

In 1921, when Lefèvre was 7 years old, fighting broke out in the nearby city of Ziguinchor and the family were forced to flee to Gambia, however during the journey their party was attacked and both of Lefèvre’s parents were killed.  Assuming Lefèvre had also been killed, and owing to the instability in the area, there was no major search operation and the matter was considered closed.

However, nine years later, villagers from a small settlement in the region trapped a 16 year old boy they had caught stealing food.  He was completely naked, didn’t seem to be able to speak or understand them and was obviously of European decent.  His climbing ability and style led to the belief that he had been raised by monkeys (although fairly rare, cases of feral children had been well documented in the area) and earned him the title ‘The monkey boy of Casamance’.

Over the next few months he quickly learnt commands in the local dialect, however it wasn’t until he was exposed to French during his examination by Belgian doctors that he first spoke (apparently reaching for a glass of milk and saying ‘lait’).  It didn’t take long to identify him as Théodore and his uncle, Adrien Lefèvre, arranged for him to be treated in a hospital in Brussels.

Once back in Belgium and in the care of his extended family Lefèvre’s progress was remarkable; within just a few months he had started talking again and had even started to re-learn to read and write.  After one year he left the hospital into the care of his uncle who organised for a team of doctors and tutors to devote themselves to his development round the clock.  Within three years (by the age of 20) he had, amazingly, managed to completely re-integrate into society, the only after effects of his ordeal being an underdeveloped education and occasional bouts of depression.  When later asked about this period of his life Lefèvre preferred to change the subject, stating that what little memories he did have were too hazy to be of any interest.

Driven by a desire to fit in with his peers, and finding comfort in the routine of study, Lefèvre’s academic progress was rapid and in 1937, at the age of 23, he began studying law at Leuven University.  Just 2 months after he graduated, however, the Second World War broke out.

Lefèvre signed up to the army in 1940 and his survival skills, discipline and confidence meant that he quickly climbed the ranks becoming a Major General shortly before the war ended in 1945.  After the war he was offered a position as a lawyer at the Ghent court of justice before quickly becoming a deputy of the Belgian parliament for the Christian Social Party.

In 1957 he became party leader, and then on 25 April 1961 he was elected Prime Minister (as part of a coalition with the Socialist candidate Paul-Henri Spaak) a position he held for four years until 28 July 1965.  Lefèvre continued to work in politics until his death in 1973.

Virginia Woolf, arguably one of the most famous female authors of the 20th century, is best known for her novels that experimented with stream-of-consciousness and the underlying psychological as well as emotional motives of characters.  Less well known are the early pseudo-science-fiction works that Woolf wrote under the pen name E V Odle, however in recent years it is these works that have arguably had more influence on popular culture.

Woolf was born in 1882 and showed a talent for writing from a very early age; however her first book The Voyage Out was not published until she was 33 in 1915.  For the next few years she enjoyed mixed success as a novelist (not enjoying mainstream recognition under her own name until 1925’s Mrs Dalloway) and so as a way to supplement her income wrote a number of short stories and novels to be published in popular magazines and newspapers.

In order to preserve her reputation as a ‘serious’ writer and not detract from her true work she took the pen name E V Odle (it has also been suggested that the gender neutrality of this name helped her make a profit within a genre that was dominated by men).  After a few adventure stories she settled into writing science fiction, a genre made popular at the time by H G Wells, and her first major financial success was the 1917 novelette The Houyhnhnm, based upon characters from Jonathan Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels.

The Houyhnhnm and the Yahoos

The story, centring around the protagonists adventures on a planet where mankind (the Yahoo) was subservient to the horse-like Houyhnhnm, has been cited as one of the main influences on French author Pierre Boulle when writing his 1963 novel Planet of the Apes and opened the door for a number of lucrative offers.  The success of The Houyhnhnm prompted Woolf to take a short break from publishing more high-brow books under her own name and saw her enter into one of the most prolific periods of her life.

After a series of mildly successful short stories Woolf (still under the pen-name Odle) started work on a serial entitled The Puppeteer God (1919), a complex story about a lonely creature who drew energy from the dreams of others, leading him to enslave his victims in a dream like trance – the world we know – without any knowledge that they were actually his prisoners.  The Wachowski brothers have acknowledged its influence in the development of their 1999 hit film, The Matrix.

The 1928 re-issuing of Orlando

Her 1920 novel Orlando, about the life of an immortal being from the reign of Elizabeth I to present day, is much more widely known today due to her decision to republish the work (with some changes) under her own name in 1928.  In the revised version Orlando only regenerates once – into a woman – however the multiple regenerations in the original are highly suggestive of the more recent Doctor Who television series.

Other influential works published under the name E V Odle were the 1923 novel The Clockwork Man, considered by most to be the first instance of a cyborg in fiction, and An Unwanted Guest (1925) in which an encounter with an ancient spirit sees protagonist Nancy Archer transformed into a giant.  The book was later re-imagined as the 1958 camp film Attack of the 50 Foot Woman.

After the wide critical acclaim of Mrs Dalloway Woolf was able to focus on her more serious works and dropped the use of her pen-name, but her E V Odle books still enjoyed mainstream popularity way into the 1930s.  However, due to the low brow style of the works they were largely forgotten when Woolf’s popularity made a comeback in the 60’s and 70’s; today they remain largely out of print and prove difficult to get hold of.

René Descartes (1596-1650) was a 17th century philosopher and mathematician who is now best known for the phrase ‘Cogito ergo sum’ or ‘I think, therefore I am’.  The simple meaning of the phrase is that by wondering if one exists, one proves one’s existence (as there has to be someone doing the wondering).  It is said to be the only irrefutable truth, as anything else can potentially be dismissed as a dream or figment of the imagination.

René Descartes

Descartes first committed to pursuing a life of science and wisdom on the night of 10th November 1619 when he had three dreams or visions that had a profound effect on him.  In the first dream he was being tossed around by whirlwind outside a college; in the second he was awoken by a loud thundering inside his head to find sparks flying out of his stove; and in the third he found a dictionary and book of Latin verse containing the phrase ‘What path shall I follow in life?’ on his bedside table.

Although he never married, Descartes had a relationship with Helena Jans van der Strom, a Dutch servant girl working for the bookshop owner with whom Descartes was lodging at the time.  This led to the birth of their daughter, Francine Descartes, on October 15th, 1634.  The three of them moved back from Amsterdam to Deventer the following winter under the story that Helena was Descartes servant and Francine his niece.

In 1640 Descartes made plans to take Francine to France to be educated, but before that could happen Francine died of scarlet fever on September 7th 1640, just before her sixth birthday.  The death of his daughter had a profound effect on Descartes, some even suggesting that it is what changed his focus from medicine to searching for universal answers and the great works he is known for today.

Helena and Descartes remained close, however in 1644 she married a local innkeeper; Descartes himself provided the 1000-guilder dowry for this wedding and ended up staying in the area for a number of years to pursue his studies, as well as his life-long passion for automata.

In 1649 Descartes was reluctantly summoned as a teacher for Queen Christina of Sweden who was fascinated by his modern philosophical incite and he set off by ship across the North Sea.  Reports from the boat indicate that Descartes had told the crew that he was traveling with his young daughter Francine (despite this being 9 years after her death) and that they were not to be disturbed under any circumstances.  During the voyage, however, they hit a particularly bad storm and, fearing they would have to abandon ship, it became necessary to summon Descartes.  When the crew arrived at his quarters he was elsewhere on the ship and so in order to save his daughter they broke down the door – only to find the room empty. 

An 18th Century Automaton capable of drawing pictures and writing poems.

In the centre of the room there was a large, suspicious looking trunk and the crew, fuelled by the mysterious circumstances of Descartes’ travel arrangements, decided to look inside.

On opening the case they were shocked to find an incredibly lifelike, full sized doll of a 5 year old girl -Francine- but their shock quickly turned to terror when the doll sat upright and turned its eyes to look at them; it was one of Descartes automatons.

They showed the primitive robot to the captain who, having never seen anything like it before, believed it to be the work of black magic and the source of the storm.  He ordered the crew to throw it overboard where it was lost at sea.

Not long after arriving in Sweden, and deprived of his precious ‘daughter’, René Descartes died of pneumonia on 11 February 1650.  Presumably ‘Francine’ is still somewhere at the bottom of the North Sea.

A diagram detailing the medullic lobe of various species of swan

In 1590, 3 years before his death, the English playwright and notorious drinker, Christopher Marlowe, was challenged in a drunken bet to fight a swan caught in Hyde Park by Ingram Frizer, the man who would later be responsible for stabbing him to death.

Christopher Marlowe

Although the details of the bet are unclear it seems that Marlowe, using a shovel, dealt an almost fatal blow to the swan and in doing so severed its medullic lobe (the black lump above it’s beak).  The bird eventually recovered and was kept for the next year in captivity by Dr Rodrigo López, the physician of Queen Elizabeth I, during which time he noted that the swan had:

“tempered it’s manner to that of a goose; Her tongue will not obey her heart, nor can Her heart inform her tongue of that passion we all recognise of Juno’s beloved bird”

The swan had become calm, docile and unaggressive to such an extent that it was taken as a pet by the Queen during her last years.  As a direct result of this all swans are still today the property of the monarch and it is illegal to kill a swan in the UK, all stemming from Elizabeth’s love for the animals.

Dr López, interested in animal as well as human physiology became fascinated by this change in demeanor and noted that, unlike most water fowl, swans have a hole in the front of their skull through which a part of the brain (the medullic lobe) protrudes.  He developed the process of tying string around a swan’s beak and medullic lobe in order to calm the animals, a process that was still being used by swan keepers up to 50 years ago.

Queen Elizabeth I

With the advancement in brain mapping technologies in the first half of the 20th century, the famous psychiatrist, Bernard Hollander, identified the medullic lobe as the centre for negative emotional states such as anger and depression.  Taking the anecdotal evidence of Dr López’s work with swans he set about trying to somehow suppress the lobe in a human brain, a task that proved far more difficult due to the fact that it is located far closer to the brain’s centre. 

During a highly controversial series of experiments on some of his more severely depressed or violent patients he, along with Portuguese physician and neurologist António Egas Moniz, developed a surgery he called prefrontal leukotomy (better known now as lobotomy) which sought to isolate and sever the medullic lobe.  The results were mixed as it proved almost impossible to isolate the desired areas without first damaging other parts of the brain, leading to mild to severe brain damage in almost all cases.  

Despite the unpleasant side effects, however, almost all patients treated were alleviated of their original symptoms and for a few years it became an acceptable last resort surgery for patients suffering from chronic depression.

In 1951, during unrelated tests on the newly developed anti-tuberculosis agents isoniazid and iproniazid, Dr Irving Selikoff and Dr Edward Robitzek, identified that, while innefective aginst the onset of TB, the drugs acted as suppressants for the medullic lobe and that while treatment continued they managed to achieve chemically what Hollander and Moniz had attempted surgically.  The anti-depressant drug had been born. 

In initial clinical trials of the drug it proved less effective on women than men, this has since been attributed to hormonal differences in the brain but at the time, and in the wake of the then recent identification of Postpartum (or postnatal) depression, it led to some more left-field commenters putting forward the notion that depression was the natural state for women.  However in 1957, the Swiss Psychiatrist Roland Kuhn discovered that compound “G 22355″ (later imipramine) was not only equally effective on men and women, but that it was in fact almost twice as effective on both.

Today many variants on imipramine are used by doctors all over the world (in fact the compound Paroxetine is compulsory for all citizens of Burma over the age of 18) and recent developments have led to stronger and more effective versions with less side effects.

In the first half of the 1930s in Ibaraki Prefecture, just north of Tokyo, Japan; Mr Kyomaro Takeuchi, the youngest in a long line of Shinto priests, discovered a set of documents in his family library.  These documents, later named the “Takenouchi documents”, were written in ancient Japanese and appeared to be the testament of Jesus Christ’s life and death in Japan.

A copy of the Takenouchi document on display in the village of Shingo

According to the remarkable manuscripts Jesus first travelled to Japan at the age of 21, during the reign of the 11th emperor, Suinin, and landed at the port of Hashidate on the Japan Sea coast.  He is then said to have settled in Etchu province (now Toyama Prefecture) where he studied Japanese and theology before returning to Judea 12 years later at the age of 33.

After being sentenced to die on the cross Jesus apparently switched places with his brother, Isukiri, who died in his place, while Jesus fled with his disciples and went into hiding, carrying locks of the Virgin Mary’s hair and his brother’s ear. He then travelled across Siberia, Alaska, and finally to what is now Aomori prefecture in northern Japan before settling in the village of Herai.  Changing his name to Daitenku Taro Jurai, Christ became a farmer, married a local Japanese woman named Miyuko, and together they had three daughters.  Although not performing any miracles during his time in Japan, Christ is said to have saved the villagers from starvation by travelling a great distance to get them food.  He eventually died peacefully at the age of 106. 

The text on the sign explaining the legend of the Tomb of Christ reads: When Jesus Christ was 21 years old, he came to Japan and pursued knowledge of divinity for 12 years. He went back to Judea at age 33 and engaged in his mission. However, at that time, people in Judea would not accept Christ's preaching. Instead, they arrested him and tried to crucify him on a cross. His younger brother, Isukiri casually took christ's place and ended his life on the cross. Christ, who escaped the crucifixion, went through the ups and downs of travel, and again came to Japan. He settled right here in what is now called Herai Village, and died at the age of 106. On this holy ground, there is dedicated a burial mound on the right to deify Christ, and a grave on the left to deify Isukiri. The above description was given in a testament by Jesus Christ

Following the discovery of these documents Takeuchi travelled to Herai with artist and researcher in ancient Japanese history Banzan Toya, where on May 26th, 1935 they discovered two ancient graves hidden away in a bamboo grove.

The graves (Juraizuka – Jesus’ tomb and Judaibo – containing the ear of Jesus’ brother and the lock of Mary’s hair) had been tended to for generations by the Sawaguchi family, local garlic farmers, who knew only that they contained very important remains but had no idea of who.  The Sawaguchis are said to be the descendants of Christ, most famously a village elder, Sanjiro Sawaguchi, who has blue eyes and unusually western features.  Junichiro Sawaguchi, grandson of Sanjiro, said in a recent interview:

“I don’t claim to be a descendent of Jesus although I know some people have said my grandfather is connected to the legend. However, when I was a young child, my mother drew the sign of a cross upon my forehead as a symbol of good fortune”

Sanjiro Sawaguchi, a direct descendant of Jesus Christ?

The sign of the cross, drawn in black ink on the head of a child when it first leaves the home, is just one of many local customs that are suggestive of Christo-Judaic influence.  Other examples include wrapping newborns in cloth embroidered with the Star of David (a 5 pointed star also features as an emblem of the Sawaguchi family) as well as an ancient song, the meaning of which has been long forgotten, that locals say is more suggestive of Hebrew than Japanese:

Naniyaa dorayayo (ナニヤアドラヤヨ)
Naniyaa donasare inokie (ナニヤアドナサレイノキエ)
Naniyaa doyarayo (ナニヤアドラヤヨ)

The name of the village, Herai (renamed Shingo in 1955), is said to be derived from the word Hebrai, meaning Hebrew in Japanese.

The Star of David style family emblem of the Sawaguchi family

The Takenouchi documents were so controversial that they were seized by the Japanese authorities and taken to a Tokyo museum shortly before World War II where they were hidden from the public.  The documents were lost in the confusion of the war, allegedly destroyed when the museum that contained them was bombed, but not before a copy was made that can still be seen on display in the village of Shingo.

The graves today are a popular local tourist spot, marked by two large wooden crosses, and pilgrims often leave coins in front of the grave in thanks for answered prayers

This plaque, laid on the floor between the two tombs, reads “This plaque is a gift from the city of Jerusalem, as a token of friendship between the State of Israel, the city of Jerusalem and Shingo.”